The factors affecting the formation of soil are as given below
(i) The parent rock or bed rock on which the soil is formed decomposes and disintegrates under the processes of weathering. Characteristics of the rock influence the characteristics of soils.
(ii) Climate influences the rate of weathering of rocks and type of vegetation, influencing the soil characteristics.
(iii) Nature of relief and slope influences the accumulation of soil. Mountains have thin soil cover whereas plains have thick soil cover.
(iv) Time provides maturity to soil.