Describe the major factors which lead to water pollution. Give examples.
The following are the major factors which lead to water pollution:
- The addition of undesirable substances to water bodies. For example, addition of industrial wastes containing poisonous salts like pesticides, insecticides, etc. are fatal for aquatic life.
- The removal of desirable substances from water bodies. For example, depletion of dissolved oxygen and nutrients has adverse effects on aquatic life.
- Change in temperature of water in the water bodies. The aquatic animals are adapted to live under certain temperature range. A sudden change of temperature may affect breeding of aquatic animals, their eggs and larvae, etc. For example, pouring of water at very high temperature from nuclear reactors may cause death of fishes and aquatic animals. Similarly, pouring cold water from dams also affects aquatic life adversely.