Classify each of the following as an electrophile or a nucleophile

electrophile
nucleophile

#1

Classify each of the following as an electrophile or a nucleophile.

image

Concepts and reason
Electrophile is an electron loving and nucleophile is a nucleus loving.
Electron pair acceptors are electrophiles, they have empty orbitals.
Electron pair donors are nucleophiles, they have non-bonding electrons.

Fundamentals
Lewis acid (electrophile) reacts with Lewis base (nucleophile) to form a new covalent bond.
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Nucleophile (electron-rich species) reacts with electrophiles (electron-poor ones).
Electrophiles are positively charged species or neutral species with vacant orbitals.
Nucleophiles are negatively charged species or contain lone pairs.

Answer:

The electrophiles are as follows:
image

Explanation:
Here, hydronium ion,image, is an electrophile because it contains a positive charge on oxygen atom. It accepts electron-pair from other species.

Methyl bromide,image, is an electrophile because when the heterolytic cleavage occurs between C-Br bond then carbon carries a positive charge, which is an electrophilic center.

The nucleophiles are as follows:
image

image

Explanation:
Here, ammonia is a nucleophile because it contains a pair of electrons on nitrogen atom.
Water molecule is a nucleophile because it contains a pair of electrons on oxygen atom.
Hydroxide ion is a nucleophile because it contains a negative charge and has a pair of electrons on oxygen atom.