Write short notes on:1.Carapace 2.Malphigian tubules

Write short notes on:

  1. Carapace 2. Malphigian tubules
  2. Medusa 4. Flame cells
  3. Mantle 6. Cephalothorax
  4. Gizzard

Carapace: It covers the head and thorax.
(2)Malphigian tubules: These are excretory organs in
insects and cockroach. .
(3)Medusa: It is a reproductive zooid meant for sexual reproduction in Obelia.
(4)Flame cells : They are excretory organs of Fasciola and Taenia.
(5)Mantle : Covering of body in mollusca.
(6)Cephalothorax : Head and thorax fused to form cephalothorax in some arthropods. It bears antennae, antennules, eyes, maxillipeds and legs.
(7)Gizzard : Grinding of food into the pulp in