How does land degradation takes place through human activities in India. Explain any four measures to control their degradation. Or What is land degradation ? Describe any four measures of controlling land degradation

Land degradation refers to the processes both natural and man-made activities which make the land unfit for use.
Some human activities like deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying have contributed to land degradation. Mining sites are abandoned after excavation leaving deep scars and traces of over burdening. In the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh deforestation due to mining has resulted in severe land degradation. In the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan,Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is the cause of land degradation. In the states of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh over irrigation has resulted in increased salinity and alkalinity in the soil due to water logging. The mineral processing, grinding of limestone for cement industry produces huge quantities of dust that retards in filtration of water into the soil. Discharge of industrial effluents also responsible for land and water pollution.
Measures of controlling land degradation :
(i) Afforestation.
(ii) Preparation of shelter belt of plants.
(iii) Control of overgrazing.
(iv) Stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny
(v) Moisture conservation and weed control in agricultural lands.
(vi) Regularisation of grazing.
(vii) Proper management of wastelands.
(viii) Control of mining.