2,4-DNP test explain

2,4-DNP test explain…

The �DNP� test is positive for both aldehydes and ketones, but not for alkenes or esters/acids/amides. This is representative of how H2N-Z reagents react with aldehydes or ketones to eliminate water and make �imines�, with a C=N-Z bond. In the chemical test, the DNP reagent is soluble; if a derivative forms, it precipitates from solution.

So the formation of a precipitate is what you watch for. The DNP-derivatives tend to be highly crystalline because of the extended conjugation; from the carbonyl carbon through the two nitrogens through the ring through the two nitro attachments, all the atoms are flat and sp2. The color of the precipitate is often informative; saturated carbonyl compounds tend to give yellow derivatives, while unsaturated aldehydes or ketones tend to give red or orange derivatives. The experiment is excellent as a chemical test, when you don�t know if you have an aldehyde or ketone. But it is also excellent as a way to make a solid derivative which can be purified by recrystallization and whose melting point can be taken. The melting points of many DNP derivatives are known and listed.