You are residing in a village. If you are asked to advice the village panchayat, what kind of activi¬ties would you suggest for the improvement of your village which would also generate employment



The following are the suggestions that can generate employment opportunities in village :
(i) Increase production: It is of prime importance to increase production in the agricultural and industrial sectors in order to increase employment. For this purpose, small scale and cottage industries should be promoted. This will not only generate new employment opportunities but also assist the industrial sector, as the production of the small scale and cottage industries act as subsidiaries to the industrial sector.
(ii) Increase productivity : The demand and productivity for labour are directly related to each other. The higher productivity generates higher profits that in turn implies higher investment and generates higher demand for labour. Rural workers should be imparted technical knowledge and modern know-how that will not only increase their productivity but also enhance their acceptability of modernisation.
(iii) Control over population: Population explosion . is one of the important concerns for India. It
widens economic growth prospects. The rising population leads to the rise in unemployment and therefore, poverty. Thus, rural people should be aware of various birth control measures and also the benefits associated with family planning and nuclear-family.
(iv) Creating non-agiicultural employment: India being an agrarian economy employs a major proportion of workforce in the agricultural sector. The development of this sector is still a far way and, consequently, suffers from disguised unemployment. Moreover, as agriculture is a seasonal occupation, so, many farmers remain unemployed for 3 to 4 months in a year. Thus, it is necessary to engage these people in non- agricultural sectors for the phase they are off from cultivation. Creation of non-agricultural jobs like pottery, handicrafts, not only reduces disguised unemployment but also contributes to enhanced income of the farmers in the off-season, which could be. invested in the farm to improve farm productivity and farm products.
(v) Easy credit and finance: Often the rural people find it difficult to access finance due to the lack of financial institutions in the rural areas.
Even if the finance or the credit is available, then this is provided at the higher lending rates. The lack of credit acts as a bottleneck
for the rural growth. Thus, financial institutions and banks should be set up to provide easy credit to the rural people.
(vi) Education and health facilities : Rural areas have always lagged behind in education and health care facilities. This not only impedes their productivity but also reduces their life expectancy and quality of standard of living, Along with primary and secondary schools, night schools for adults, imparting technical
education and technical know-how, proper sanitation and hospitals should be established in the rural areas.