In the 19th century, a large number of Indian labourers went to work on plantations, in mines and in road and railway construction projects around the world.
The following factors were responsible for indentured labour migration from India
(i) In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised return travel to Indian and agents provide them false information about the nature of work, living - and working conditions.
Hoping for a better future, the workers migrated in other countries.
(ii) Most Indian indentured workers came from the present-day regions of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu.
In these regions, cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. All these factors forced the poor to migrate in search of work.
(iii) Many indentured labourers agreed to take up work hoping to escape poverty or oppression in their home villages.
Labourers were largely required in other countries and the scope of employment forced the workers to migrate.