Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.
- Preparation of soil
- Preparation of soil: It is the first method to be followed before growing a crop. This method is usually employed for loosening the soil to allow the root to penetrate deep into it. The loosening of the soil helps in the growth of several soil microbes, earthworms etc., which enrich the soil with humus and other essential nutrients. Plants require nutrients for their proper growth and functioning. The process of loosening is called tilling or ploughing the soil. Tilling of soil brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top. This helps the plants to utilise the nutrients for their growth.
- Sowing: Sowing is another important step in crop production. It is the process of placing the seeds in or on the soil for future growth. The seeds that are selected for growing should be of good quality. This will improve the net yield of the crop. Sowing is usually done with the help of either a traditional tool or a seed drill. The traditional tool is shaped like a funnel. It was used earlier for sowing seeds. Nowadays, seed drills that make the use of tractors are used for sowing seeds. This tool disperses seeds uniformly and sows seeds at proper depth. Sowing by this method saves time and also protects the seeds from birds.
Weeding: Undesirable plants that grow along with the crop are known as weeds. Weeding is the process of removing these weeds. Xanthium, Parthenium, etc. are
some common weeds. Weeds compete with the crop for nutrients, light, and space. As a result, crop plants get lesser nutrients, light, and space for their development. This in turn, reduces their productivity. Thus, various weeding methods are employed.
Some important weeding methods are:
- Weeds can be controlled using weedicides. It is a chemical, which is sprayed in the fields to kill all available weeds. Weedicides are not harmful to crops.
- Tilling before sowing of crops also helps in removing weeds. Tilling uproots the weeds. The best time for removal of weeds is before they produce flowers and seeds.
- The manual method of removing weeds is with the help of a khurpi. It involves regular uprooting or cutting of weeds close to the ground.
- Threshing: Threshing is the process of separating grains or seeds from chaff. It is done after harvesting the crop. It is usually carried out with the help of a machine known as ‘Combine’. This machine is a combined harvester and thresher. It harvests plants as well as cleans grains.