(a) Giuseppe Mazzini He was an Italian revolutionary, who was born in Genoa in 1807. He was sent into exile at the age of 24 in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He founded two secret societies, namely Young Italy and Young Europe. He inspired the young members of these societies to involve in revolutionary activities.
Following his ideas and on the model of his secret societies, more such societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Austrian Chancellor Duke Matternich once described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour He was the Chief Minister of
Piedmont. He was neither a democratic nor a revolutionary. But he led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. Through tact and diplomacy, he entered into an alliance with France and succeeded in defeating Austrian forces in 1859.
(c) The Greek War of Independence It was a 16.
successful war waged by Greek revolutionaries between 1821 to 1832 against the Ottoman Empire. Greek nationalists were influenced by the idea of liberal nationalism. They were supported by the West European countries in this war of independence. Further, the poets and artists, who added romanticism to the Greek struggle of independence, participated in this war against the Ottoman empire.
With the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832, Greece was recognised as an independent" nation.
(d) Frankfurt Parliament The German middle class decided to vote for an all German National Assembly in 1848 and 831 .persons were elected.
They comprised the National Assembly.
The assembly decided to organise the Parliament at Frankfurt in the Church of St Paul. Thus, on 18th May, 1848, the famous Frankfurt Parliament was convened.
The assembly decided that the German nation would be a constitutional monarchy controlled by Parliament and offered the crown to the Prussian King, Friedrich Wilhelm IV. But he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. The Parliament also faced strong opposition from the aristocracy and military as it was dominated by the middle-class who resisted the demands of workers and artisans. As result of this, the middle-class lost their mass support.
Ultimately, the monarchy and military combined together with the aristocracy and won over'the liberal nationalist middle-class.
This forced the assembly to disband. Therefore, the Frankfurt Parliament is famous in history as a failure of liberalism and a victory of the monarchy.
(e) The role of Women in Nationalist Struggles
Women played very significant roles in nationalist struggles all over the world.
They actively participated in movements, faced the tortures of police, stood by their male counterparts, spread the idea of liberal nationalism and also were members of various revolutionary organisations.
A good example is the French Revolution, in which men and women participated equally.
Even, the concept of liberty is personified as a woman.
Liberal nationalism proposed the idea of universal suffrage, leading to women’s active participation in nationalist movements in Europe. In spite of this, they were given little or Ans no political rights or right to vote till the end of the 19 th century.
Note :This type of questions will not be asked in the, examination, only its one or two sub-parts will be asked.