With the help of a diagram show the movement of food from mouth to the
stomach.What muscles and nerves are involved in the movement of food and what
is this action called ?
A .Muscles involved in movement of food from mouth to stomach :
1) Typical movement of the oesophagus," stomach and intestine is called peristalsis. The muscles of the mouth enable the food to be pushed in the oral cavity.
2) The first major muscle movement occurs when food or liquid is swallowed. Once the swallowing begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of nerves in the jaw.
3) Contraction and relaxation of circular and longitudinal muscles in the oesophagus bring in a wave-like motion that propels the bolus into stomach by the action called peristalsis.
4) As the food approaches the closed ring of pyloric sphincter the surrounding muscles relax and allow the food to pass.
5) The muscles of the upper part of the stomach have to relax and accept large volumes of swallowed material.
6) The lower part of the stomach mixes food, liquid and digestive juice by its muscle action.
Nerves involved in the movement of food :
1) The fifth cranial nerve has been found to control the movement of muscles in the
2) Under the action of autonomous nervous system saliva is secreted to make chewing and swallowing easier.
3) Peristalsis in oesophagus is also under the control of autonomous nervous system.
4) When the food is in the oral cavity, the nerves in the cheek and tongue are Stimulated and carry messages in the form of nerve impulses to the brain.
5) These messages are transmitted from the brain to the wall of the stomach and stimulate the gastric glands to produce gastric juice.