- The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education.
- French tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people, to make them believe
- History: India and the-Contemporary WoQri-ll^
- in the superiority of French civilisation and the inferiority of the Vietnamese.
- Vietnamese intellectuals, on the other hand, feared that Vietnam was losing not just control over its territory but its very identity; its own culture and customs were being devalued and the people were developing a master-slave mentality.
- The battle against French colonial education became part of the larger battle against colonialism and for independence.