The main causes of India’s ayricultural staynation during the colonial period were
(i) Land Revenue System There were several land revenue systems. According to zamindari system, the zamindars were recognised as permanent owners of the soil. The profit accruing out of the agriculture sector went to the zamindars instead of cultivators. However, both zamindars and colonial government did nothing to improve the condition of agriculture. Zamindars were to pay a fixed sum to the government as land revenue and they were absolutely free to extract as much from the tillers of the soil as they could.
(ii) Lacking of Resources Alongwith the land settlement system, low levels of technology, lack of irrigation facilities and negligible use of fertilisers, all added upto the bad condition of the farmers and contributed to the dismal level of agricultural productivities.
(iii) Commercialisation of Agriculture Due to commercialisation of agriculture, there was, some evidences of a relatively higher yield of cash crops in certain areas of the country.
Instead of producing food crops, now farmers were producing cash crops, which were ultimately to be used by British Industries.