By 19th century, the urban population, both men and women, encouraged individual freedom.
(i) In spite of this new spirit of individualism however men and women did not enjoy equal rights.
(ii) As women lost their industrial jobs, they were forced into domestic jobs. The male population dominated the workplace.
(iii) Some political movements of 19th century such as Chartist Movement and 10 hour movements mobilised large number of men to demand their rights.
(iv) Chartism demanded voting rights for all males above 21 and 10 hour movement limited hours of work in factory to 10 hours.
(v) Women were still left out of equal status. Only gradually did the women come to participate in such political movements.