What is soil erosion? What are the main causes of soil erosion?
Denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is known as soil erosion.
Causes of soil erosion:
- Due to human activities like deforestation, overgrazing, construction and mining, etc.
- Natural forces like wind, glacier and water leads to soil erosion.
- The running water cuts through clayey soils and makes deep channels as ‘gullies’. The land becomes unfit for cultivation, this process is called gully erosion and the land is called bad land or ravines in the Chambal basin.
- Sometimes, water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. It leads to the washing away of the top soil. This process is called sheet erosion.
- Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land, and is called wind erosion.
- Soil erosion is also caused due to defective methods of farming.