(i) At the time of independence, there were two i aspects of the Indian economy. The Britishers introduced a new type of hand tenure system in India which gave birth to two classes- zamindars or landlords and landless tenants or cultivators.
(ii) The landlords were very cruel to the
cultivators. They used to charge very high rate i of rent and land revenue. That’s why feudal relations (landlord-tenant relations) appeared in this system.
(iii) In the middle of 19th century, capital
investment was made in many new sectors like cotton textile, jute, sugar, tea, rubber and coffee plantation, etc. This created two classes- ; capitalists and labourers. So, at the time of independence, features of both (feudal and capitalist) appeared in this system