What factors gave birth to the Consumer Movement in India?

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#1

What factors gave birth to the Consumer Movement in India? Trace its evolution.
Or
Explain three factors that gave rise to the Consumer Movement in India.


#2

The consumer movement arose due to the following factors
(i) Dissatisfaction of consumers, as many unfair practices were being indulged by the sellers like short weighing, black marketing, adulteration, etc.
(ii) There was no legal system available for consumers to protect them from exploitation in the marketplace.
If consumers were not happy with a particular brand, product or shop, they generally avoid buying that brand or product or would stop purchasing from that particular shop.
(iii) It was presumed that it was the responsibility of consumers to be careful while buying a commodity or availing of a service.
Evolution of Consumer Movement The Consumer Movement in India started as a social force with the need to protect consumers against unfair and unethical trade practices being followed by many retailers and manufacturers.
These included creating artificial shortages, hoarding cereals and other agricultural products, black marketing of goods and adulteration of cooking oils and food items.
Till 1986, consumer organisations were highlighting issues by writing articles in newspapers and magazines about these bad practices of merchants. But nowadays, as the consumers have become more aware, the number of consumer groups have grown who have highlighted these malpractices. In 1986, the Government of India enacted the Consumer Protection Act, also known as COPRA. This was a major step in the Consumer Movement in India.