(a) The term aerobic means 'with oxygen'.
Continuous supply of oxygen to the body is maintained in order to burn carbohydrates and fats for production of energy for these activities.
(b) The intensity and energy requirement in activities is within the capacity of the person so as to sustain the activity.
(c) Aerobic is a system of exercise designed to promote the supply and use of oxygen in the body. These exercises include bicycling, skating, swimming, etc.
(d) Regular aerobic exercises help to reduce the risk of heart diseases.
(e) Aerobic activities contribute to the development of cardiorespiratory endurance. These incude those activities which are done for prolonged period of time during which body can meet the demand and supply of oxygen.
Anaerobic : The term Anaerobic means "without oxygen" or ability of an organism to perform an activity in the absence of oxygen. It refers to the energy exchange in your muscles that is dependent on oxygen. Anaerobic exercise is high intensity activity for a short period of time. Anaerobic exercise relies on energy sources that are stored in the muscles, because the demand for oxygen from the exercise exceeds the oxygen supply.
Anaerobic activities depends upon the following factors :
(i) Phosphogen stores
(ii) Buffer capacity
(iii) Lactic acid tolerance
(iv) Aerobic capacity.
Means of fitness development:
(a) The term 'Yoga' is derived frorm Sanskrit word "Yuj" which means union or join. It is the joining of an individual self with the universal self (unification of Aatma and Parmatma).
(b) Yoga is a systematic process for an all round personality development at physical, mental, social and spiritual level.
(c) Yoga is timeless and ageless. It improves and regains shape and tones up muscles. It relieves tension, stress and depression and increases confidence and energy level, relaxes the body, relieves joint stiffness and increases flexibility.
(d) Yoga is practised for peace of mind. Most of the people adopt yoga to keep the body and mind fit.
(e) The practice of yoga helps us to overcome all obstacles on the path to perfect health and spiritual contentment.
(ii) Jogging :
It is an easy running exercise programme to develop general and physical fitness. Jogging contributes to development of cardiorespiratory fitness. Jogging requires- proper sports shoes and clothes. While jogging we to keep following points in our mind :
(a) If we are above 35 years of age, we must consult our doctor before starting any jogging or health fitness programme.
(b) Begin slowly and build up to the recommended intensity according to the . capacity.
(c) Do not jog if you are suffering from a
significant injury or disease or when you are not feeling well.
(d) Early morning and late evening hours are most suitable for jogging.
(e) Jogging may be done 3-5 times a week
(iii) Participation in Sports
(a) It helps in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. A physically fit person is less prone to coronary heart diseases.
(b) It helps in harmonious growth and development.
(c) It helps in better management of stress and tension.
(d) It improves the functional capability of various systems of the body.
(iv) Cycling : Cycling is an aerobic exercise. It provides a good exercise to the whole body. It is one of the best means for the maintenance and development of physical fitness. It should be performed for 15 to 30 minutes. The speed can be maintained as per the capacity of individual, traffic and surface, etc. Avoid cycling on busy and crowded roads. Group cycling with friends or family also provides fitness with fun and enjoyment. Cycling contributes to development of cardiorespiratory fitness, strengthens quadriceps and calf muscles and improves overall physical fitness.
(a) It is an activity for pleasure and satisfaction to an individual. It refreshes one's mind and body after work.
(b) Recreational activities reduce the monotony and make a person alert.
(c) Absence of these activities can lead to laziness; boredom, stress or tension.
(d) Recreation through sports provides an opportunity for socialization, stimulation, co-operation which leads to some kind of strength and confidence in an individual.
(e) Recreational activities are very good for health. These stimulate your functioning and sense organs.
(vi) Callisthenics : Callisthenics generally involve free hand exercises. In ancient times, it was considered as an important means of physical fitness. The purpose of these exercises is to develop various muscles or muscle groups besides affecting other systems of the body. These exercises can be performed individually or in groups and are performed for 5 to 10 minutes. The callisthenics include movement of all major muscle groups. Warming up is also composed of many callisthenic exercises. The exercise selected must be suited to one's need, time and facilities available and must ensure that each body part is exercised adequately. These are the integral part of military training. They also develop general level of coordination. In other words these are also known as physical training exercises. Following are some of the callisthenic exercises :
Jumping jacks, push ups, chin ups, sit ups, arm rotation, neck extension and flexion, on the spot running, alternate toe touching, body stretch, trunk twisting, leg raise etc. These exercises are beneficial for general fitness improvement and help develop one's speed of movement, flexibility, agility and coordination.