Kingdom Fungi : The kingdom fungi, includes achlorophyllous, spore producing, multicellular, eukaryotic, organisms.
(a) The body of fungi is filamentous called mycellium. The filaments are known as hyphae.
(b) The hyphae are either multicellular or coenocytic i.e. multinucleate and without cross walls.
(c) The cell wall contain chitin and non-cellulosic
polysaccharides N-acetyl - glucosamine.
(d) They have two envelop type of cellular organisation.
(e) The are heterotrophic with absorptive type of nutrition. It is either saprobic or parasitic, Saprobic fungi excrete digestive enzymes in the external medium to make complex organic matter soluble for absorption. Parasitic fungi ; absorb nourishment directly from another living organism called host.
(f) Reserve food is glycogen and fat.
(g) Reproduction is both asexual and sexual. Asexual reproduction takes place by spores like zoospores, conidia, ascospores and basidiospores. Sexual reproduction involves fusion of similar gametes. In some fungi, the fusion of two haploid (n) cells results in diploid (2n) cell or zygote.
(h) Many fungi act as decomposers and mineralisers and thus, play an important role in nutrient cycling in the biosphere.