In the modern world, the life of pastoralists changed largely. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movements were regulated and the revenue they had to pay increased. Colonial powers thought all uncultivated land as unproductive. Thus, Wasteland Rules were enacted and by these rules uncultivated lands were taken over and used for cultivation. So, the expansion of cultivation led to the decline of pastures for the cattle.
Various Forests Acts prevented the pastoralists from entering many forests that had provided forage for their cattle. Even they had to pay taxes on every animal they grazed. But they have adapted to new times by changing the paths of their annual movement and reducing their cattle in their herds. They demanded rights in management of forests and water resources.