There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced

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#1

There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.


#2

Following are the similarities between Indian pastoralists and Maasai herders .
(i) Both India and East Africa were under the control and dominance of the European colonial powers with similar intentions and objectives.
In both places, the pastoral communities lost the pasture land because the colonial powers took control of these pastures and brought them under cultivation. (ii) Both in India and East Africa, forest laws were made and the pastoralists were not permitted to use the forests for grazing or taking out forest produce.
The mobility of the pastoralists was severely restricted whereby fodder was in short supply and feeding the cattle became a persistent problem. Many of them were thereby forced to give up their old mode of occupation.
(iii) Both in India and Africa, Grazing Tax was imposed on the pastoralists. All these created a lot of hardship for the pastoral communities of India and Africa.