- The Balkans comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
- The disintegration of the ruling Ottoman Empire and the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism made this area explosive.
- The European subject nationalities started breaking from its control to declare independence.
- The Balkan revolutionaries’ acts were directed to gain back the long-lost independence.
- The Balkan States were fiercely jealous of each other and wanted to gain more territory at the expense of the other.
- There was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade, colonies, naval might and military might. European powers such as Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary were keen on opposing the hold of other powers over the Balkans for extending their own area of control.
- All these events ultimately triggered the First World War (1914).
‘The idealistic liberal- democratic sentiment of nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends.’ Support the statement in the context of Balkan nationalism in the early 19th century