“The distribution of flora and fauna is primarily determined by the climate”.Justify this statement by giving relevant facts.
It is true that the distribution of flora and fauna is primarily determined by the climate. Climatic factors like temperature, photoperiod and precipitation highly affect climate of a place.
In India, all the major physical features of the Earth i.e. mountains, plains, deserts, plateaus and islands are there in which climatic factors vary.
The given points state how climatic factors affect climate which determines distribution of flora andfauna
(i) Temperature The character and extent of vegetation and distribution of fauna are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soil.
On the slopes of the Himalayas and the hills of the Peninsula above the height of 915 m, the fall in the temperature affects the types of vegetation, its growth, and changes it from tropical to subtropical, temperate and alpine vegetation. Thus, affect the distribution of wildlife too.
(ii) Photoperiod (sunlight) The variation in duration of sunlight at different places is due to differences in altitude, latitudes, season and duration of the day.
Due to longer duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summers. As forests are shelter for fauna, thus, more trees mean a rich and diverse fauna.
(iii) Precipitation In India, almost the entire rainfall is brought in by the advancing of South-West monsoon (June to September) and retreating North-East monsoons. Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation and fauna as compared to other areas of less rainfall.