(a) Landlessness Landless labourers in the villages are generally poor. They usually belong to the depressed sections of society and earn very low wages. They are also subject to seasonal unemployment, when they have to do odd jobs at very low income.
(b) Unemployment If the labour force is idle and unutilised due to unemployment, the level of income is reduced and the unemployed persons- cannot afford even the essentials of life, leading to poverty.
© Size of families When the number of persons in a family increase, the income of the family becomes less than what is the minimum required to provide them the essentials for proper living. This ultimately leads to poverty.
(d) Illiteracy Due to poverty, the parents are not able to send their children to school and thus, increase their earning power. Later on, when these children become adults and enter the job market, they are unable to find well-paying jobs, resulting again in poverty. Thus, illiteracy and poverty depend on each other.
(e) Poor health/malnutrition Poverty causes
malnutrition and poor health, as the poor people cannot afford adequate amounts of nutritious food or proper medical services. Once they are malnourished or in poor health, they are not able to work productively and thus, they get rhore poor. if) Child labour Poverty forces the parents to make their children work, although there is a law against child labour. This makes the children drop out from school, resulting in their not getting well-paying jobs when they grow up.
(g) Helplessness Due to poverty, the poor people become helpless and are willing to do any work for a low income. This leads them further into poverty.