The term 'training' is a process of preparing an individual for any event or an activity or for some task. Sports training is considered a long term training programme which aims at improving the performance of a sportsman.
Sports training is a planned process by which sportsmen acquire perfection.
Sports training refers to the total planned and systematic process of making a sportsperson capable of attaining highest sports performance and develop an all round personality so as to make him a good citizen.
"Sport training is based on scientific knowledge, and a pedagogical process of sports perfection which through effect on psycho-physical performance ability and performance readiness aims at leading. According to Martin "Training in sports is a planned and controlled process in which for achieving a goal changes in complex sports, motor performance ability to act and behaviour are made through measures of content methods and organization".
Principles of sports training : In this training method exercise is done for long duration without giving any break or pause in between the exercises. For example, cross country runs. The continuous method is divided into :
1. Slow continuous method : In slow continuous method the athlete exercises at a slow pace without any break or pause for very long duration the heart rate ranges from 140-160 beats per minute. The duration of exerdse should not be less than 30 minutes and may last upto 2 hours or even more. The activities involved are running, walking, cycling, etc. This type of training greatly aids the runner in preparing himself for actual competition.
2. Fast continuous method : In fast continuous method the work is done at faster speed without changing the pace for long without any pause or break in between the exercise. The duration of work should not be less than 20 minutes for well trained athletes. Heart beat ranges from 160-180 beats per minute. As the nature of activity is fast, intensity is high so, it is more strenuous and exhaustive. Fast pace method is very effective for improving the V02 maximum. It has a positive effect on an aerobic capacity, increases number and size of mitochondria and brings about changes in heart and lungs.
3. Varied pace method : In this method sportsmen start with fast continuous method then switch on to slow continuous method. The heart beat is maintained between 140-180 beats per minute. It is also beneficial for improving both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. The total duration ranges from 15 minutes to 1 hour.