Novels in the 19th century served as vehicles of social change both in Europe and India. In novels, many real life situations were reflected. They not only criticised the prevailing ills in the society, but also suggested remedies. They dealt with class discrimination, prejudices against women, caste and class issues, problems and effects of industrialisation etc.
They dealt with every aspect of our society, e.g. Premchand in his various novels like Nirmala,
Sewasadan and Godan dealt with the poverty and exploitation, poor condition of the women, child marriage and dowry system in our society.Potheri Kunjambu, a lower caste writer from North Kerala, wrote a novel called Saraswativijayam, where he strongly criticised caste oppression. This novel gave stress on the importance of education for the upliftment of the lower castes.
Thus, we can easily say that novels created a sense of social awareness in India.