Different macronutrients and their functions :
(a) Carbon: It is the major component of carbohydrates
and other cellular constituents.
(b) Oxygen : It is an important component of
carbohydrates and other structural constituents of the cells.
(c) Magnesium : It is an essential component of
chlorophyll and is involved for binding of ribosome components. It acts as enzyme activator in those cases which are concerned with phosphate
(i) Synthesis calcium pectinate, the constituents of
middle lamella in the cell wall.
(ii) It helps in translocation of carbohydrates.
(iii) It regulates cell permeability.
(iv) It helps in lipid metabolism.
(i) It is an important constituent of protoplasm and protein.
(ii) It is found in amino acids, NAD, NADP, purines, pyrimidines, chlorophyll enzyme etc.
(i) An important constituent of cell membrane/certain proteins, all nucleic acid and nucleotides.
(ii) It is present in AMP, ADP, ATP, GDP and GTP and plays an important role in the energy transfer of photosynthesis and respiration.
(iii) Essential for all phosphorylation reactions.
(I) It is involved in the following process :
(i) protein synthesis
(ii) formation of cell membrane
(iii) opening and closing of stomata.
(II) It activates certain enzymes and helps in maintenance of turgidity of cells.
(Ill) Act as a co-enzyme or an activator for many enzymes.
(i) Essential constituent of some proteins.
(ii) It is present in amino acids, cysteine and methionine, coenzyme A and vitamins thiamine and biotin.
(iii) Essential for chlorophyll synthesis.
(iv) Increases nodule formation in legumes