Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances. NH3 CO CO2 CH3Cl

intermolecular-force

#1

Identify the intermolecular forces present in each of these substances. NH3 CO CO2 CH3Cl.

Concepts and reason
When two atoms or molecules approach each other, some attractive forces are developed between the nucleus of one atom and the electrons of other atom. There is a change in the electron distribution within a molecule. These interactions between the neighboring molecules or atoms are called intermolecular forces.

Fundamentals
London-dispersion forces are weak and exhibited by all the molecules.
Dipole-dipole interactions are moderate and exhibited by the molecules with a net dipole.
Hydrogen bonding is strong and exhibited by the molecules which have O - H, N - H, or F - H bond.
Ion-ion interactions are very strong and exhibited by the ionic compounds.
The interactions between the ion and the dipole of the protic solvent are known as ion-dipole interaction.

Answer:

Ammonia is a polar covalent molecule. The intermolecular forces present in image are hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces, and dispersion forces.
The intermolecular forces present in image are hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces, and dispersion forces.
Ammonia can participate in hydrogen bonding as the H atom is bonded to a highly electronegative atom (nitrogen). Since, the molecule is polar, dipole-dipole forces are also present. Dispersion forces are present in all molecules.

The molecule, CO is polar. Hence, dipole-dipole forces and dispersion forces are present in this molecule.
Therefore, the intermolecular forces present in CO are dipole-dipole forces and dispersion forces.
In CO, hydrogen bonding is not possible as there is no hydrogen atom in the molecule.
Check whether there is any symmetry in the molecule.

image
It is non-polar. Hence, only dispersion forces are present in this molecule.
The intermolecular forces present in image are dispersion forces.

Although image has polar bonds, the polarity of the C=0 bonds cancels each other as it has center of symmetry.

image
It is a polar molecule. Hence, dipole-dipole forces and dispersion forces are present in this molecule.
The intermolecular forces present in image are dipole-dipole forces and dispersion forces.

Chlorine is highly electronegative than hydrogen atoms. Hence, the molecule is polar. Hydrogen bonding is not possible in this molecule.