City development everywhere occurred at the expense of ecology and environment.
(i) Naturalfeatureswereflattenedoutortransformed in response to the growing demand for space for factories, housing and other institutions.
(ii) Large quantities of refuse and waste products polluted air and water, while excessive noise became a feature of urban life.
(iii) The widespread use of coal in homes and industries in nineteenth century England raised serious problems. In industrial cities such as Leeds, Bradford and Manchester, hundreds of factory chimneys spewed black smoke into the skies. Skies used to look grey due to smoke.
(iv) The black fog that descended on the towns caused smoke related diseases and dirty clothes.