(i) Large scale industrialisation and urbanisation have posed a great pressure on existing fresh water resources as many multinational companies are being set up in India who are the heavy consumers of water for processing, discharge of effluents and as an energy resource.
(ii) Hydroelectricity contributes 22% of total electricity produced in India. These industrial units have not only posed a great threat to the availability of fresh water resources but also contributed to bad quality of water with large growing number of urban centres and population.
(iii) Modern lifestyle of the urban people has created more demand for water both for domestic purposes and increased consumption of energy.
(iv) In housing colonies to meet the needs of population, water resources are over-exploited resulting in depletion of ground water resources.
(v) Fresh water needs to be protected from industrial pollution and wastage of water in cities.