How does the size and shape affect the overall rate of nutrient intake and waste elimination?
As cells grows its relative surface area ratio decreases and it’s demand for material resources increases because more cellular structures are necessary to adequately exchange materials and energy with the environment. The surface area must be large enough to efficiently exchange materials. The smaller the cell the more favorable of a surface area to volume ratio for exchange of materials with the environment which is done through diffusion.
The volume determines how much enters and leaves the cell while surface area determines the rate at which nutrients are taken in or excremented. Volume increases faster than surface area the rate at which nutrients are able to be taken in and waste taken out is not fast enough to accommodate the size of the cell. This explains why cells divide rather than keep growing larger.