How do the landmarks of China and India differ from (or resemble) those of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia?
This is an extremely broad question that has no real definitive answer, as the extremely diverse and massive differences between Egypt and Mesopotamia along with those of China and India make this question quite a deep generalization. For a generalized question, it is only possible to answer with a generalized answer, and so there will be extreme exceptions to all of these cases.
In general, the landmarks of all of these regions are similar in that they are almost always created for a religious context, either to honor a religious figure, location, or belief system. Another aspect that is similar is that they are often paid for in part or in entirety by the government or monarchy of the region. Landmarks are often built or funded by leaders as a sign of both their power and as a sign of generosity both to their people and religion.
In regards to the differences between these landmarks, there are too many to count between all four of these culture groups, and so it is impossible to even know where to begin.