In the name of development natural features were flattened out or transformed due to the growing demand for space for factories and other institutions.
Large quantities of refuse waste products used by the people in the cities polluted air and water, while excessive noise lead to noise pollution. With development of industries railways came the use of coal which caused serious problems to industrial cities such as Leeds, Bradford and Manchester. In these industrial cities, hundreds of factory chimneys spewed black smoke into the skies. These cities grew up believing that the skies were grey and all vegetation was black.