Policy-maker Paul Bernard believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed for making more profits. If the standard of living of the people in colony improved, they would buy more goods which led to better profits for French businessmen.
Bernard thought that there were several obstacles for the economic growth in Vietnam. These included high population levels, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness among the farmers. To reduce rural poverty, land reforms and industrialisation like Japan were necessary. These would create more jobs and helped reduce poverty in Vietnam.