how did both innovations and disruptive forces affect people during the middle ages
In many cases, disruptions within Medieval society largely led to innovations that improved and affected people within Europe of the time. For example, the Viking invasions and raids of the 8th to 11th centuries led to the creation of a Feudal system where the peasantry were protected by a knight’s retinue and castle whilst also providing a service through farming, production, or taxes. This led to a more organized and structured system which was at first disrupted by the Vikings but later improved due to the more centralized form of production, society, and leadership within Europe at the time.
Another example would be the Black Death, which killed over a fifth of the population of Europe during the 14th century, but this massive lack of laborers eventually led to an improvement to the lives of the lower classes due to their ability to demand better wages and an improved quality of life.
Disruptions regularly lead to societies adapting and innovating new ideas to overcome these challenges, which can clearly be seen in the issues of the Viking Age along with the Black Death.