1.To obtain nutrition from the endosperm for the developing embryo.
2.Groundnut-endosperm completely consumed.castor-endosperm persists.
3.For the entry of water and oxygen, for germination.
4.Protect the embryo to keep the seed viable, until favourable conditions return for germination.
5.Ovary is not taking part in fruit formation or thalamus contributes to fruit formation.