Work Study Frederick Winslow Taylor was the founder of scientific management. He broke up human activities into small parts and found out how it could be done effectively, in less time and with increased productivity. His techniques are based on scientific approach. He developed these techniques after proper analysis and experiments.
Taylor's work study techniques include - time study, motion study, fatigue study and method study.
(a) Method Study
This technique of scientific management is conducted to find out the ‘one best method or way’ of performing a particular task. The objective of this study is to minimise the cost of production and maximise the quality and satisfaction of the customer.
For this, techniques such as process charts and operations research are used.
(b) Motion Study
Motion study refers to an in-depth study of movements of a worker while doing a task. Taylor recognised three types of movements:
(a) Productive (b) Unproductive (c) Incidental The objective of motion study is to eliminate unproductive movements in doing a task to achieve efficiency and reduce the time required to do the task. For this, Taylor used stopwatches and various colours and symbols to identify productive and unproductive movements of the employees.
(c) Time Study
It determines the standard time taken to perform a well-defined job. Time measuring devices were used to conduct this study. This type of study is helpful in deciding the time required to perform a job. It also helps in determining a fair day’s work for the workman and determining incentive schemes and labour costs.
(d) Fatigue Study
Fatigue study seeks to find out the amount and' frequency of rest intervals to be given to workers in completing a task. This would help the worker to regain his stamina and work with the same efficiency again. It also aims to reduce various causes of fatigue such as long working hours, doing unsuitable work, bad working conditions, etc. The objective of this study is to find out how long a person can perform the standard task without any adverse effects on his health and productivity.