Between 1810 and 1880 the population of London multiplied fourfold.
(i) London became a powerful magnet for migration of population even though it did not have large factories.
(ii) No scope of improvement in rural areas.
(iii) It became a city of clerks and shopkeepers of small masters and skilled artisans, of a growing number of semi-skilled and sweated out workers, soldiers and servants, casual labourers, street sellers and beggars.
(iv) There was a dockyard where many people earned livelihood. People came to the city looking for jobs.
(v) Five majortypes of industries that employed large number of people were clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing and stationary and precision products such as surgical instruments, watches, objects of precious metals.