Principles of physical fitness : Regular physical fitness exercise is required for an individual to develop and maintain physical fitness and proper growth of the body.
Principles for development of physical fitness :
- Specificity : Choose a programme that meets your need because physical fitness has many components, you need a programme that includes exercises and activities for the fitness (Fitness for a specific part of the body) of areas in which you need improvement. For example, if speed is desired speed exercises should be given.
- Tolerance : Exercise should not be too easy or too difficult to achieve, it should be within the individual’s tolerance capacity.
- Total body involvement : Exercise programme should be designed in such a way that exercise of every part of the body is done to ensure proportionate body development.
- Progressive over-loading : The load of exercise should be increased step by step
for the improvement of physical fitness level of an individual. It should be progressively increased from simple to complex keeping in mind the individual’s tolerance capacity.
- Age and sex : Physical fitness level varies according to the age and sex. The intensity and volume of fitness work should be planned separately for boys and girls and according to their growth pattern.
- Regularity : Regularity is a biological necessity. One has to maintain regularity in order to achieve and maintain physical fitness.
- Proper rest and sleep : Insufficient rest and sleep results in fatigue and has negative effect on regularity and progression. It is suggested that a minimum of 6-8 hours comfortable sleep is required in a day.
- Warming up : A session of thorough warming up is necessary for participating in any training programme. Warming up prepares muscles and heart for the workout. Warming up generally increases the body temperature before the strenuous workout and prevents muscle injury.
- Limbering down : It is also known as ‘cooling down’. Limbering down promotes quicker recovery from fatigue and the individual feels fresh for the next day training session.