Anatomy of Dicot/Dorsiventral Leaf:
(a) Epidermis is present on both the upper surface (adaxial epidermis) and the lower surface (abaxial epidermis). The epidermis on the outside is covered with a thick cuticle.
(b) The lower epidermis is interrupted by a number of openings called stomata.
(c) Each stomata is surrounded by two kidney/bean shaped cells called guard cells, which is responsible for the opening and closing of stomata.
(d) The mesophyll consists of two types of cells :
(i) Elongated cells arranged compactly in rows or
stacks called palisade parenchyma.
(ii) Irregularly arranged cells with large intercellular j spaces, called spongy parenchyma.
(e) The mesophyll cells contain a number of chloroplasts.
(f) The vascular bundles are present in the midrib and other veins.
(g) In each vascular bundle, the xylem is towards the adaxial side (upper surface) and phloem is towards the abaxial side (under surface).