(a) Wasteland Rules To the colonial officials, all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive.
Therefore, grazing lands were also considered as wastelands as they produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce.
The Colonial Government wanted to bring the grazing lands under cultivation so that they could get revenue and agricultural goods from this land. '
Effects of the Wasteland Rules According to Wasteland Rules, the uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals who were granted concessions and encouraged to setde these lands. Therefore, expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and created problems and hardships for the pastoralists.
(b) Forest Acts By the mid-19th century, various Forest Acts were also being enacted in the different provinces of India. Through the Forest Acts, the forests were divided into two categories: Reserved Forests and Protected Forests.
Effects of the Forest Acts Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if forage was available. They could enter only by getting a permit for entry.
If they overstayed the specified period of time, they were liable to fines. Their lives became difficult and full of hardships. Their traditional rights were severely restricted.
(c) Criminal Tribes Act The British officials were suspicious of nomadic people. They distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who hawked their goods in villages and pastoralists who changed their places of residence every season, moving in search of good pastures for their herds.
In 1871, the Colonial Government passed the Criminal Tribes Act. By this act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as Criminal Tribes. They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth.
Effects of Criminal Tribes Act After this act was enforced, these communities were expected to live only in notified village setdements. They were not allowed to move out without a permit. The village police kept a continuous watch on them. They could no longer move from one place to another.
(d) Grazing Tax The Grazing Tax in India was introduced by the Colonial Government in the mid-19th century. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. The tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection was made increasingly efficient.
Effects of the Grazing Tax To enter a grazing tract, pastoralists had to show the pass and pay the tax. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. The tax went up rapidly. So, the economic / hardship of the pastoralists increased.
Note In the examination, this question will not be asked completely. Only its one or two sub-parts will be asked.