Co-factors are non-protein molecules that are relatively stable at high temperatures,
consisting of three main types, i.e., inorganic ions, coenzymes and prosthetic groups.
(i) Examples of inorganic ions are calcium ions (activates the enzyme thrombokinase to convert prothrombin into thrombin during the blood clotting process) and chloride ions (activates salivary amylase to convert starch into maltose).
(ii) Examples of coenzymes are NAD, acetyl coenzyme A, ATP and NADP.
(iii) Examples of prosthetic groups are haem and FAD. Prosthetic groups are molecules that are
permanently attached to the enzyme.