Planning and controlling are interrelated and interdependent :
Planning is the base of controlling function, as controlling involves measurement of performance against the standards to analyse deviations and take corrective action. Thus, controlling is impossible without planning.
Planning without controlling is meaningless, because in the absence of controlling, it is impossible to monitor the progress and keep a check on the proper implementation of plans. Thus, without controlling, planning will fail to achieve objectives.
Planning is a thinking process while controlling is an executive function. While planning involves creative thinking, imagination and sound judgement, controlling ensures that such decisions are converted into desired actions. Thus, planning is prescriptive, whereas, controlling is evaluative.
On the basis of the above discussion, it is concluded that planning and controlling are interrelated and reinforce each other because:
(i) Planning based on facts makes controlling easier and effective.
(ii) Controlling improves future planning by providing information derived from past experiences.