The major reasons of poverty in India are
(i) Low level of economic development under the British colonial administration The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles.
(ii) Low rate of India’s economic growth after independence This resulted in less job opportunities and low growth rates of incomes, accompanied by a high growth rate of population hence increasing poverty.
(iii) Lack of land resources Land reforms aimed at redistribution of assets in rural areas have not been implemented effectively.
(iv) Backwardness in agriculture People mostly use old, traditional and subsistence methods of farming. This requires much labour and time. Effects of irrigation and the Green Revolution were limited to only some parts of India.