- The city of London encouraged a new spirit of individualism among both men and women and a freedom from the collective values that were a feature of the smaller rural communities.
- Both men and women did not have equal access to this new urban space.
- As women lost their industrial jobs, conservative people spoke against their presence in public spaces, women were forced to withdraw into their houses.
- The public space became increasingly a male preserve and home was seen as the proper place for women.
- So this theory of individualism promoted liberty, rights or independent action of the individual, rather than of the community or the family.