‘By the end of the 19th century, a new visual culture was taking shape with the setting-up of an increasing number of printing press and visual images could be easily reproduced in multiple copies. Painters like Raja Ravi Varma produced images for mass circulation.
During his lifetime, Varma is most remembered for his paintings of sari-clad women portrayed as graceful. His paintings were a fusion of Indian traditions with the techniques of European academic art. Cheap prints and calendars were easily available in the markets which could be bought by poor people to decorate walls of their homes.These prints began shaping popular ideas about modernity and tradition, religion, politics, society and culture. Innovations made colour prints more beautiful.
By the 1870’s, cartoons, caricatures etc were being published in newspapers and journals. These caricatures had a great effect on peoples’ minds.