Amplification of gene is done using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is best defined as in vitro process of DNA replication . This technique was developed by Kary Mullis in 1985 who received Nobel Prize for it in 1993.
The basic requirements of a PCR reaction are as follows:
(a) DNA Template The double stranded DNA that needs to be amplified. .
(b) Primers These are chemically synthesised oligonucleotides (short segment of DNA) that are complementary to the regions of DNA template.
(c) Enzymes Two commonly used enzymes in PCR reaction are:
• Taq Polymerase It is isolated from a thermophilic bacterium, i.e. Thermus aquations. It has a property to remain active during the high temperature induced denaturation of double stranded DNA. It also helps in the amplification of a segment of DNA.
• Vent Polymerase (isolated from Thermococcus litoralis).
(d) Nucleotide bases These are added by DNA polymerase to the growing chain.