(a) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. In reality, they were rarely given such permission.
(b) For plantation workers in Assam, the notion of‘Swaraj’ meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed and also the right to retain a link with their native villages. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, they left plantations and headed for their own villages. But they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.